Monthly Archives: November 2012

Creamy Cauliflower (a lovely and healthy mashed potato substitute)

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Creamy Cauliflower (a lovely and healthy mashed potato substitute)creamy cauliflower puree 5

This is a very variable dish and fun to “fool” your guests with—because many of them won’t even note the difference between usual and the different.  Cauliflowers which now can be procured from markets in all different kinds of shades and resembling it’s cousin, broccoli, in form is low in fat, low in carbohydrates but high the good stuff like dietary fiber, folate, water and vitamin C.  You actually can see cauliflower mentioned in the writings of the Arab Muslim scientists in the 12th and 13th century.  For me, I first heard of it when my parents informed me that they picked me as a baby from a cauliflower patch.  Yes, you heard right.  This was a common European/French statement to make to the younglings—when they asked that pertinent question:”Where Did I Come From?” Choux which in French alludes to the cauliflower is still used as an endearing term as in: “Mon petit choux”.  So there you have it—Margot loves cauliflowers because from it she was derived.  No laughing please—this is a serious topic.   To end this little diversion, here is a recipe that I often use and enjoy:

Ingredients:

  1. 1 nice creamy white cauliflower: about 8 C. of bite-size pieces (but if you wish to be inventive another color will do) and save the stem greens if you wish to use in presentation decoration.
  2. 4 cloves garlic, crushed and peeled or minced
  3. 1/2 green cooking apple (I use it unpeeled but do as you wish) such as the wonderful Pippin—diced
  4. 1/3 C. Buttermilk or I use 1/3 C. milk with 1 Tblsp lemon juice which has sat for 5 minutes
  5. 2 Heaping Tblsp Parmesan—1 to be saved as a topping
  6. 2 Tsp. butter-1 tsp to be saved as a topping
  7. 1/2 Tsp. Salt or as much as you wish for taste
  8. Fresh ground pepper for taste

Directions:

  1. Place bite sized cauliflower florets in a microwave safe dish along with the minced garlic and diced apple- and just a bit of water with a cover and microwave on high for about 8 minutes. Steam until very tender.  Then drain well.
  2. At this point, either use a potato smasher to smash everything before putting in a blender to puree; or use your food processor to puree the ingredients.  Before switching your machine switch on, add the milk, 1 heaping Tblsp. Parmesan, 1 Tsp. butter and S&P.
  3. When you have finished the puree, place the ingredients in a broiler proof dish and top with your remaining butter and parmesan.  Place under broiler until nice a brown on top.  (If you have made this dish several hours or more before serving and want to heat it up in the oven before broiling, please do that. Or you can even microwave it till hot and then broil it.)
  4. By the picture, you can see that I surrounded this dish with roasted Brussels sprouts and the very exterior rim is lined with the leaves I had saved from the Cauliflower itself.
  5. Variations include using different kind of cheeses, chopped herbs without the apples; or even nutmeg, cinnamon or currents with the apples; and so once again, it’s your imagination that can rule.  I imagine you could even use rich cream or 1/2 & 1/2 instead of the milk.
  6. In conclusion, this can be a very healthy dish and it’s fun to play around with and with which to surprise you dining guest.
  7. Bon Appetit from Margot, TempInnKeeper.

For easy access and printing of this and past recipes, visit Margot’s blog http://blog.tempinnkeeper.com  Call Margot for personal cooking help @ 721-3551.

Margot is a self-taught enthusiastic & passionate cook. Having been an inn-keeper for 5 years at her own inn, she accumulated a lot of good recipes which she loves to share.

Cooking Terms and Definitions-The Basics

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Margot doing the inn keeper thingCooking Terms and Definitions: The Basics

  1.  Au Gratin: Topped with crumbs and/or cheese and browned in oven or under broiler
  2. Au Jus: Served in its own juices
  3. Baste: to moisten foods during cooking with pan drippings or special sauce in order to add flavor and prevent drying.
  4. Bisque: A thick cream soup.
  5. Blanch: To immerse in rapidly boiling water and allow to cook slightly. Also can be called parboiling.
  6. Bombe: A still-frozen rich cream or custard pudding.
  7. Braise: Braising begins like sauteing-you brown the food in a bit of fat, but it continues by adding liquid to the pan, covering it and finishing the cooking over moist, low heat(you don’t boil the food, you simmer it). It’s ideal to cook big chunks or large cuts of meat.
  8. Caramelize: To heat sugar in a skillet until melted and brown or to heat foods containing sugar until light brown and caramel flavored.
  9. Charlotte: Usually a gelatin dessert with flavored shipped cream molded in a form lined with cake or lady fingers.
  10. Clabber: Milk soured to a point where there is a market precipitation of curd but no separation from whey.  Buttermilk, sour milk, clabber and yogurt may be used interchangeably in cooking.
  11. Condiments: Food seasonings such as salt, pepper, vinegar, herbs and spices.  Relishes are frequently called condiments.
  12. Compote: Sweetened stewed fruit left whole or in pieces.
  13. Court Bouillion: A highly seasoned fish broth.
  14. Cream: To soften a fat, especially butter, by beating it at room temp. Butter and sugar are often creamed together, making a smooth, soft paste.
  15. Crimp: To seal the edges of a two-crust pie either by pinching them at intervals with the fingers or by pressing them together with the tines of a fork.
  16. Crudités: An assortment of raw veggies that is served as an hors d’oeuvre, often accompanied by a dip.
  17. Cuisine: Literally “kitchen” in French. Cookery or a style of cooking.
  18. Demi Tasse: a tiny cup of after-dinner coffee
  19. Degrease: To remove fat from the surface of stews, soups or stock. Usually cooled in the frig so that fat hardens and is easily removed.
  20. Deglazing: Using a liquid to release the flavorful bits that remain after cooking as in”deglazing the pan afterward” to make a sauce known as a reduction.  You can deglaze with lemon juice, vinegar, wine,stock, juice, cream or a combination.
  21. Dissolve: To liquefy a solid food, to melt.
  22. Drippings: The residue left in the pan in which meat or poultry has been cooked.
  23. Dust: To sprinkle lightly with flour or sugar.
  24. Dredge: to coat lightly with flour, cornmeal, etc.
  25. Entrée: The main course.
  26. Flake: To break up into small pieces with a utensil.
  27. Flambé: To cover or combine food with spirits and serve is lighted as Pears Flambé.
  28. Frappe: Sweetened fruit juice frozen until of a mushy consistency.
  29. Fold: To incorporate a delicate substance, such as whipped cream or beaten egg whites, into another substance without releasing air bubbles.  A spatula is used to gently bring part of the mixture from the bottom of the bowl to the top.  The process is repeated, while slowly rotating the bowl, until the ingredients are thoroughly blended.
  30. Glaze: To cover with a glossy coating, such as a melted and somewhat diluted jelly for fruit deserts.
  31. Goulash: A Hungarian thick meat stew.
  32. Gumbo: A term used for okra or mixtures with okra.
  33. Heat:This is a very integral and important part of cooking. Preheating your skillet for grilling or sauteing is a must for browning and proper cooking. Like wise with the oven; 350 degrees is not hot enough to brown most meats; you need a higher heat like 450 or more if you want to put a nice crust on the food you are cooking–bread or chicken. You’ve probably heard the poo-pah about electric stoves versus a fancy gas one, but that really is baloney.  Heat is heat and you just have to know how to use it.  With electric, if you know that you are going to need an element for high heat cooking, start it before you do your cooking.  If then you have to transfer from the high electric element to a low heat element, prepare for that by turning another element on your stove to low so that you can transfer your pot easily without having to remove it off the burner.  Of course, if all of your burners are full, you will have to remove it for a moment.  I’ve even done fabulous cooking in the micro and a small portable oven which also had the ability to go convection–like lamb shanks, muffins, etc..  I’ve done cooking in all sorts of kitchens–some of them with no more than a portable 2 electric burner unit, a micro, and well, you’ve gotten the idea.  If you want to make a gourmet meal, you can make it almost under any condition and any where.
  34. Hollandaise: A sauce made of eggs and butter, served hot or cold with vegetable, fish, or eggs.
  35. Julienne: to cut or slice veggies, fruits or cheeses into match shaped slivers.
  36. Lyonnaise: usually cold boiled potatoes shopped and sautéed with butter and onions.
  37. Marinade: An oil and acid mixture in which food is allowed to stand to gain flavor or tenderness.
  38. Marzipan: A confection of almonds reduced to paste with sugar.
  39. Marinate: To allow food to stand in a liquid in order to tenderize or to add flavor.
  40. Meuniere: Dredged with flour and sautéed in butter.
  41. Mince: To chop food into very small pieces.
  42. Mousse: A mixture of sweetened whipped cream and other ingredients frozen without stirring, or combinations of cream, fruit, meat, vegetable, etc. thickened with gelatin.
  43. Parboil: To boil until partially cooked: to blanch.  Usually final cooking in a seasoned sauce follows this procedure.
  44. Pare: To remove the outermost skin of a fruit or veggie
  45. Parfait: A frozen dessert consisting of beaten egg whites or yolks cooked with hot syrup and combined with whipped cream or a mixture of ice cream, fruit, and whipped cream.
  46. Paysanne: Country style.
  47. Pimento: All spice
  48. Pimiento: A garden pepper.
  49. Poach: To cook gently in hot liquid kept just below the boiling point.
  50. Polenta: Italian dish of corn meal.
  51. Puree: To mash foods by hand by rubbing through a sieve or food mill, or by whirling in a blender or food processor until perfectly smooth.
  52. Ragout: A de luxe concoction, but literally a thick, well-seasoned stew.
  53. Refresh: to run cold water over food that has been parboiled in order to stop the cooking process quickly.
  54. Render: To free fat from connective tissue by heating slowly until fat melts and can be drained off.
  55. Rissole: To sear or brown food with a protective covering, or a baked or fried pastry filled with meat, fish or fruit.
  56. Roe: Fish eggs.
  57. Roux: A melted fat and starch base used mainly for thickening sauces or soups.
  58. Reduce: To lessen a quantity of fluid by boiling it away-usually with out a cover/top.
  59. Sauté: To cook and/or brown food in a small quantity of hot shortening. Saute in French means “to jump”.
  60. Scald: To heat to just below the boiling point, when tiny bubbles appear at the edge of the saucepan.  To immerse food in boiling liquid for a short time.
  61. Scallop: To bake food in layers covered with sauce and crumbs in an oven-proof dish.
  62. Score: To make light cuts in a surface, usually in lines.
  63. Sear: To brown the surface of meat by quick application of intense heat, usually in a hot pan or in a hot oven.
  64. Shred: To cut into very thin slices or strips.
  65. Shortening: Any kind of fat suitable for baking.
  66. Simmer: To cook in liquid just below the boiling point.  The surface of the liquid should be barely moving, broken from time to time by slowly rising bubbles.
  67. Sliver: To cut or shred into lengths.
  68. Steaming: Steaming is cooking over, not in, liquid.
  69. Steep: To let food stand in hot liquid in order to extract or to enhance flavor, like tea in hot water or poached fruit in syrup.
  70. Stewing: Braising, but usually with no initial browning and with more liquid.
  71. Stir Fry: Stir-frying is similar to sauteing in that food is cooked over high heat in a small amount of fat.  Food to be stir-fried is cut up before cooking; liquid is added during the cooking; and stir-frieds are most often associated with Asian foods which sautes are European.  It’s all a matter of tradition.
  72. Stock: The liquid resulting from the cooking of meat, fish or vegetables-an invaluable aid in making gravies, sauces, soup, and adding interest to vegetables.
  73. Toss: To combine ingredients with a repeated lifting motion.
  74. Until Set: Until a liquid has become firm, usually applied to a gelatine mixture.
  75. Veloute: A basic white sauce.
  76. Whip: To beat rapidly in order to incorporate air and produce expansion, as in heavy cream or egg white.

Seasoning and Other Handy Substitutions

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Seasonings Substitutions:

  1. Apple Pie Spice, 1 Tsp.= ½ Tsp. ground cinnamon, ¼ tsp ground nutmeg, 1/8 tsp. ground allspice and a dash of ground ginger
  2. Cajun Seasoning, 1 Tblsp.= ½ tsp. white pepper, ½ tsp. garlic powder, ½ tsp. onion powder, ½ tsp. ground red pepper, ½ tsp. paprika and ½ tsp ground black pepper
  3. Fresh snipped herbs, 1 Tblsp.= ½ to 1 tsp. dried herbs
  4. Poultry Seasoning,1 tsp.=3/4 dried sage and ¼ tsp. dried thyme
  5. Pumpkin Pie Spice, 1 tsp.= ½ tsp. ground cinnamon, ¼ tsp. ground ginger, ¼ tsp. ground allspice, and 1/8 tsp. ground nutmeg
  6. Allspice, ground=ground cinnamon, nutmeg or cloves
  7. Chili Powder= dash of bottled hot pepper sauce plus equal measures of ground organo and cumin
  8. Clove, ground= ground allspice, cinnamon or nutmeg
  9. Cumin,ground=chili powder
  10. Mustard, dry, 1 tsp.= 1 Tblsp. yellow prepared mustard
  11. Paprika= cayenne pepper (just a dash because it’s hotter than paprika.
  12. Cayenne pepper, ground, ½ tsp.= 2 to 3 drops bottled hot pepper sauce
  13. Curry Powder, All Purpose=1 tsp. black peppercorns, 3 Tblsp. cumin seeds, 4 Tblsp. coriander seeds, 1 Tblsp. ground ginger, 2 Tblsp. ground turmeric. Toast and grind the first three spices.  Mix them with the ginger and turmeric. Store in a sealed jar for several month. To make this a hot cutty powder, add ½ Tsp. or more ground cayenne. Makes ½ C.
  14. Curry Powder,Fragrant:  ¼ tsp. nutmeg pieces, ½ tsp. black peppercorns, 3 cloves, 1 tsp. cardamom seeds, 1 (2-inch) piece cinnamon stick, 1 tsp. fennel seeds, 1 tsp. fenugreek seeds, 2 Tblsp. cumin seeds, 4 Tblsp. coriander seeds, 1 Tablsp. Ground ginger, 2 Tblsp. ground turmeric.  Toast and grind the first 9 spices. Mix them with the ginger and turmeric.  Store in a sealed jar for several months. Makes ½ C.
  15. Garam Masala: ½ tsp. nutmeg pieces, 1 (3-inch)piece cinnamon stick, 3 cloves, 1 Tblsp. coriander seeds, 2 tsp. cardamom seeds. Toast and grind all spices together. Store in a sealed jar for several months.  Makes ½ C. (This is a mild almost sweet curry)  Add ¼ Tsp. of saffron if you have it.

Other Handy Substitutions:

Ingredient                                                             Quantity                                         Substitute

Baking Powder                                                     1 Tsp.                                             ¼ Tsp. baking soda plus ½                                                                        Tsp. cream of tartar

Chocolate                                                               1 square (1 oz.)                           3 or 4 Tblsp. cocoa plus 1 Tblsp. butter

Cornstarch                                                             1 Tblsp.                                           2 Tblsp. flour or 2 Tsp. quick-cooking tapioca when used for thickening purposes

Creme Fraiche: 1 C. light cream & 2 Tblsp. buttermilk in a glass container. Let stand at room temp for 8-24 hours or until thick. Stir well, cover and refrigerate for up to 10 days.  I’ve actually found that it can get thick in 10-15 minutes.

Arrowroot                                                               2 Tsp.                                              1 ¾ Tblsp. flour when used for thickening purposes

Cracker crumbs                                                     3/4 C.                                               1 C. bread crumbs

Dry Mustard                                                           1 Tsp.                                              1 Tbsp. prepared mustard

Flour, self-rising                                                    1 C.                                                   1 C. all-purpose flour plus ½ Tsp. salt and 1 Tsp. baking powder

Herbs, fresh                                                           1 Tblsp.                                           1 Tsp. dried herbs

Ketchup or Chili Sauce                                         1 C.                                                   1 C. tomato sauce plus ½ C. sugar and 2 T. vinegar (for use in cooking)

 Butter                                                                     1 C.                                                     7/8 C. corn or nut oil

Milk, sour                                                               1 C.                                                    1 Tblsp. lemon juice or vinegar plus regular milk to make 1 C. (let stand 5 minutes)

Whole Milk                                                            1C                                                       1/2 C. evaporated milk plus ½ C. water or 1/2 C half & 1/2 and 1/2 C. water

Min.marshmallows                                              10                                                       1 large marshmallow

Brown Sugar                                                         1/2 C.                                                  2 T. molasses in 1/2 C. granulated white sugar or 1 C. molasses plus ¼ to ½ Tsp. soda and reduce the liquid ¼ C or 1 C. maple syrup and ¼ C. corn syrup and reduce the liquid ¼ C.

Powdered Sugar                                                    1 C.                                                     1 C. granulated sugar plus 1 Tsp. cornstarch

Granulated White Sugar                                     1C.                                                       1 C.honey plus ¼ to ½ Tsp. soda and reduce the liquid by ¼ C.

Tomato Juice                                                         1 C.                                                      1/2 C. tomato sauce plus 1/2 C. water

When substituting cocoa for chocolate in cakes, the amount of flour must be reduced. Brown and white sugars usually can be interchange

Did You Know? Handy Hints For All Cooks

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Did You Know?

  1. Bananas: peel from bottom up and usually you won’t have the stringy things appear.
  2. Bananas: take your bananas apart when you get home so they won’t ripen as fast.
  3. Bananas: Overripe? freeze until it’s time to bake. Store them unpeeled in a plastic bag.
  4. Cheese: Store when opened in aluminum foil to keep fresh longer and not mold.
  5. Peppers: 3 bumps on bottom are sweeter; 4 bumps on bottom and firmer and better for cooking.
  6. Ground Beef Frying: Add a Tsp. of water when frying and it will help pull the grease away from the meat while cooking.
  7. Eggs: to make scrambled or omelets extra rich, add a couple of spoonfuls of sour cream, cream cheese, heavy cream or even half & half in and then beat them.
  8. Garlic: Add garlic immediately to a recipe if you want a light taste and add it at the end if you want a stronger taste.
  9. Pizza, Left Over: Reheat in a nonstick skillet on top of the stove; set heat to med-low and heat till warm.  This keeps the crust crispy and not soggy like micro pizza.
  10. Deviled Eggs,The Easy Way: Put cooked egg yolks in a zip lock bag; seal and mash till they are all broken up; add remainder of ingredients, reseal, keep mashing till mixed thoroughly; cut the tip of the baggy, squeeze mixture into egg.  Throw away the bag.
  11. Frosting, Store Bought: Whip it with your mixer for a few minutes.  It’ll probably double in size.
  12. Bread, Reheating if Refrigerated: To warm left-over biscuits, pancakes, or muffins that were refrigerated, place them in a microware with a cup of water.  The increased moisture will keep the food moise and help it reheat fast.
  13. Measuring Cup, Clean Trick: Before you pour sticky substance into your cup, like peanut butter, fill cup with hot water; dump out the hot water and don’t dry cup; next, add your ingredient and watch how it comes out so easily.
  14. Ants, One Possible Way to Get Rid of Them: Put small piles of cornmeal where you see ants.  They eat it, take it home, can’t digest it so it kills them.  It may take a week or so, especially if it rains, but it works and you don’t have to worry about pets or children.
  15. Add flavor to teas by dissolving old-fashioned lemon drops or hard mint candies in it.
  16. Wine does freeze: Yes indeed, you can make ice cubes from wine and also store left over wine in baggies to use for your next stew, etc.
  17. I store my ground coffee in the freezer to keep it fresh.  I always get compliments on my coffee.
  18. Appetizers for a party: Allow 4-6 per guest if a meal quickly follows; 6-8 if a late meal is planned; if no meal, 8-10 pieces per guest.
  19. To keep appetizers cold, set bowls on top of ice or rotate bowls of dips from fridge every hour or so.
  20. Left Over Veggies: Add tomato juice and seasoning to create a soup.
  21. Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts Odors: To help diminish them, try adding a little vinegar or lemon juice to the water.  Don’t overcook.
  22. Beans: Try adding 3 large celery stalks to make them easier to digest.
  23. Soggy Lettuce?: Try perking it up with a mixture of lemon juice and cold water.
  24. Hard Boiled Egg Shells: If you quickly rinse the eggs in cold water after boiling, the shells should be easier to remove.
  25. Fruit Salad Slicing: Try using an egg slicer to make perfect slicing and a pretty appearance.
  26. Vinaigrette ratio: Is usually 3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar
  27. Pasta Salads: Cook your pasta al dente so that it can absorb some of the dressing without getting mushy.
  28. Fruit Juice Salad Dressing: Just add a little olive oil, nutmeg and honey and yum!
  29. Soup and Stew Thickner: Aside from the usual, you can try a little instant potato flakes if you have them.
  30. Hot Oil Splattering: Sprinkle a little salt or flour in the pan before frying to prevent that.
  31. Pasta Boil Overs: Place a wooden spoon or fork across the top of the pot while the pasta is boiling; or add just a bit of butter or olive oil.
  32. Rice, unwanted stickiness: try adding a few drops of lemon juice.
  33. Mashed Potatoes, Very White: Add a little vinegar or lemon juice before draining.
  34. Greens Retaining Their Fresh Color: Add a tsp. sugar to the water.
  35. Tough Green Beans?: Salt midway through cooking.
  36. Cheese Sticking to Grater?: Spray grater with non-stick spray.
  37. Marinating: Use that ‘ole plastic bag; easy to turn and clean.
  38. Roast Tenderizer: Add a tomato or two because it contains an acid that works to break down meats.
  39. Roast Carving: Cut across the grain so it’s easier to eat and also looks better.
  40. Poultry: Refrigerate as soon as possible–and if over two days, freeze. Never leave out for longer than 2 hours. I know the turkey can be an exception.
  41. Poultry: One lb.= 3 C. cubed
  42. Cooking Temps:Red meats = 160 degrees;poultry 180 degrees.
  43. Fish: lemon juice rubbed on fish tends to maintain color and enhances flavor.
  44. Flour: When in doubt, sift.
  45. Nuts:Best to store in frig; enhance flavor by toasting before using in recipes(place nuts on a baking sheet and bake at 300 for 5-8 minutes or until slightly browned.
  46. Eggs:Worried about how fresh they are? Place them in a large bowl of cold water and if they float, don’t use them.
  47. Eggs: When using in a recipe and particularly when whipping egg whites, make sure they are at room temp.
  48. Cakes: Want to get the professional frosted look? Blow-dry the frosting with a hair dryer until the frosting melts a little to get that silky, molten look.
  49. Cookie Dough: Unbaked can be covered and refrigerated for up to 24 hours.  Better yet, freeze for up to 9 months.
  50. Bars: Line pans with aluminum foil for easy removal and clean up. Score right after removing pan from oven so when cool, cutting is easier.
  51. Chocolate: To melt, use a double boiler.
  52. Onions: Teary eyes? Try briefly placing them in the freezer before cutting.
  53. Onion and Lemon: Want to wash the smell out of your hands? Try rubbing lemon juice on your hands. Also works for that garlic smell.  Or try rinsing hands under cold water while rubbing them with a large stainless steel spoon.
  54. Lemons: For juicing, bring to room temp and roll them under your palm against the kitchen counter before cutting and squeezing.
  55. Salt and Rice: For those of you who live in humidity, put a couple of raw rice grains in the salt shaker to keep the salt free flowing.
  56. Salad Dressing Storage: For self-made dressings, try the small plastic squeeze bottles instead of a jar.
  57. Garbage Disposal Blades: I barely use mine, however if you use yours, ice cubes will help sharpen those blades.
  58. Glasses Stuck Together?: Oh dear! Separate by filling the inside glass with cold water and setting both in hot water.
  59. Spice Grinder: Purchase another coffee grinder just for this job.  Be sure to mark it “spices”.

 

Quick Fixes

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Quick Fixes

  1. Acidic foods—like a tomato based sauce. Add 1 tsp. or less soda at a time or try sugar as an alternative
  2. Burnt food on pots and pans: Fill with hot water when cool and add a capful of liquid or a sheet of fabric softener; let it sit for several hours.
  3. For Smooth Melted Chocolate: Try melting in a double boiler with water not touching the top pot which has your chocolate, slowly whisk in warm heavy cream (1/4 C. to 4 oz. chocolate).
  4. Hard Brown Sugar: Place in a paper bag and microwave for a few seconds. Watch carefully or it’ll melt and make a mess.
  5. Overcooked Sweet Potatoes or Carrots: Think soufflé with the addition of eggs and sugar. Sweet potatoes also makes for a good pie filling.
  6. Sandwich Bread Gone Stale: Toast or micro bread briefly; turn into breadcrumbs.
  7. Soup, sauce, gravy too thin: Add 1 Tblsp. flour to several Tblsp. of your hot liquid; stir till smooth and then add to soup,sauce,gravy.  Better yet, use cornstarch instead of the flour. Better to use flour melted in some butter before you make your sauce to thicken it.
  8. Sticky rice: Try rinsing rice with warm water.
  9. Stew or soup is greasy: If you have time, refrigerate and remove grease once it congeals.  Or lay some cold lettuce leaves over the hot stew for about 10 seconds and then remove. Repeat as needed.
  10. Salty,(too much): Add a little sugar and vinegar.  For soups or sauces, add a raw peeled potato.
  11. Sweet,(too much): Add a little vinegar or lemon juice
  12. Undercooked Cake and Cookies: Serve over vanilla ice cream; layer pieces with whipped cream and fresh fruit to form a dessert parfait; crumbled cooks also make an excellent ice cream or cream pie topping.

Equivalency Chart

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Equivalency Chart

Apple (1 medium)=1 C

Banana,mashed, 1 medium=1/3 C

Bread, 1 ½ sliced = 1 C. soft crumbs

Bread, 1 slice=1/4 C. fine dry crumbs

Butter, 1 stick=1/2 C.

Chocolate, 1 square=1 ounce

Coco, 1 lb.=4 C.

Coffee,ground,1 lb.= 5 C.

Cornmeal, 1 lb.=3 C.

Cornstarch,1lb.=3 C.

Crackers, Graham,14 squares=1 C. fine crumbs

Crackers,saltine,28 crackers=1 C. fine crumbs

Egg,whole=4 Tblsp.

Egg,whole,4-5 =1 C.

Egg, whites,8-10=1 C.

Egg,yolks,10-12=1C.

Flour,white,unsifted,1 lb. =3 ¾ C.

Flour,white,sifted,1 lb.=4 C.

Garlic, 1 clove=1/2 tsp. minced garlic; 1/8 tsp. garlic powder; 1/2 tsp garlic salt

Lemon,1 medium=3 Tblsp. juice

Marshmallows,16=1/4 lb.

Noodles,uncooked,4 oz..=2-3 C. cooked

Spaghetti,uncooked,7oz.=4 C. cooked

Nuts,chopped, 1/4 lb.=1 C.

Onion,1 medium=1/2 C.

Raisins,1 lb.=3 ½ C

Rice,brown,1 C.=4 C. cooked

Rice,converted, 1C.=3 ½ C. cooked

Rice,regular,1C.=3 C. cooked

Rice,wild,1 C.=4 C. cooked

Sugar,brown,1 lb.=2 ½ C

Sugar,powdered,1 lb.= 3 ½ C.

Sugar,white granulate, 1lb.=2 C.

Vanilla safers,22=1 C. fine crumbs

Zwieback,crumbled,4=1 C.